Groups of Four Max!!!!!! Abnormal Psychology Wednesday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Learning Goal One: Define personality and summarize the psychoanalytic perspectives.
Due Wednesday!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Learning Goal Four: Discuss the personological and life story perspective. Chapter 12 Personality Goal Six: Discuss the biological perspectives. Learning Goal Eight: Summarize how personality relates to health and wellness. Make Note cars but I will not check them!!!!!!! Erik Erikson Homework: Read Chapter 11 section 1 and take detailed notes. Development ProjectPsycholog1.
Due Next Tuesday! Chapter 9 Human Development Introduction. Due Tuesday Chapter 9Human DevelopmentName. Unit 7 — Cognitive Development Notes. Unit 7 — Social Development. Unit 7- Physical Development Notes 2. Also begin your group project due in one week, why wait!
Friday Finish Presentations if need be. Read Chapter 11 section 1 and take detailed notes. Posted in Uncategorized Happy New Year! In Packet. The meaningful life is a road worth traveling Friday It's one thing to classically condition a dog to salivate at the sound of a tone, or a child to fear moving cars.
To teach an elephant to walk on its hind legs or a child to say please, we turn to operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are both forms of associative learning, yet their difference is straightforward: Classical conditioning forms associations between stimuli a CS and the US it signals. It also involves respondent behavior - actions that are automatic responses to a stimulus such as salivating in response to meat powder and later in response to a tone.
In operant conditioningorganisms associate their own actions with consequences. Actions followed by reinforcers increase; those followed by punishers often decrease. Behavior that operates on the environment to produce rewarding or punishing stimuli is called operant behavior.
Skinner's Experiments. Skinner was a college English major and an aspiring writer who, seeking a new direction, entered psychology graduate school. He went on to become modern behaviorism's most influential and controversial figure. Skinner's work elaborated on what psychologist Edward 1. Using Thorndike's law of effect as a starting point, Skinner developed a behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control.
These principles also enabled him to teach pigeons such unpigeon-like behaviors as walking in a figure 8, playing Ping-Pong, and keeping a missile on course by pecking at a screen target. The box has a bar a lever that an animal presses-or a key a disc the animal pecks-to release a reward of food or water. It also has a device that records these responses.
This design creates a stage on which rats and others animals act out Skinner's concept of reinforcement : any event that strengthens increases the frequency oD a preceding response. What is reinforcing depends on the animal and the conditions. For people, it may be praise, attention, or a paycheck. For hungry and thirsty rats, food and water work well. Skinner's experiments have done far more than teach us how to pull habits out of a rat.
They have explored the precise conditions that foster efficient and enduring learning. Shaping Behavior. Imagine that you wanted to condition a hungry rat to press a bar. Like Skinner, you could tease out this action with shapinggradually guiding the rat's actions toward the desired behavior. First, you would watch how the animal naturally behaves, so that you could build on its existing behaviors.
You might give the rat a bit of food each time it approaches the bar. Once the rat is approaching regularly, you would give the food only when it moves close to the bar, then closer still. Finally, you would require it to touch the bar to get food. With this method of successive approximations, you reward responses that are ever-closer to the final desired behavior, and you ignore all other responses.
By making rewards contingent on desired behaviors, researchers and animal trainers gradually shape complex behaviors. Shaping can also help us understand what nonverbal organisms perceive. Can a dog distinguish red and green?
Can a baby hear the difference between lower-and higherpitched tones?One of the many different ways in which people can learn is through a process known as operant conditioning also known as instrumental conditioning. The type of reinforcement used can play an important role in how quickly a behavior is learned and the overall strength of the resulting response. Psychologist B. Skinner is considered the father of this theory.
Note that reinforcement is defined by the effect that it has on behavior—it increases or strengthens the response. For example, reinforcement might involve presenting praise the reinforcer immediately after a child puts away her toys the response.
By reinforcing the desired behavior with praise, the child will be more likely to perform the same actions again in the future. Reinforcement can include anything that strengthens or increases a behavior, including specific tangible rewards, events, and situations. In a classroom setting, for example, types of reinforcement might include praise, getting out of unwanted work, token rewards, candy, extra playtime, and fun activities. In operant conditioning, there are two different types of reinforcement.
Both of these forms of reinforcement influence behavior, but they do so in different ways. The two types include:. While these terms involve the words positive and negative, it's important to note that Skinner did not utilize these to mean "good" or "bad.
Positive is the equivalent of a plus sign, meaning something is added to or applied to the situation. Negative is the equivalent of a minus sign, meaning something is removed or subtracted from the situation. How and when reinforcement is delivered can affect the overall strength of a response.
This strength is measured by the persistence, frequency, duration, and accuracy of the response after reinforcement is halted. In situations when present reinforcement is controlled, such as during training, the timing of when a reinforcer is presented can be manipulated. During the early stages of learning, continuous reinforcement is often used, such as when you first teach your dog a new trick. Once a behavior has been acquired, it's often a good idea to switch to a partial reinforcement schedule.
The four main types of partial reinforcement are:. Reinforcement plays a vital role in the operant conditioning process. When used appropriately, reinforcement can be an effective learning tool to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones. It's important to remember that what constitutes reinforcement can vary from one person to another.
In a classroom setting, for example, one child may find a treat reinforcing while another might be indifferent to such a reward. In some instances, what is reinforcing might actually come as a surprise. If a child only receives attention from his parents when he is being scolded, that attention can actually reinforce misbehavior.
By learning more about how reinforcement works, you can gain a better understanding of how different types of reinforcement contribute to learning and behavior. Ever wonder what your personality type means?
Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Colomb J, Brembs B. The biology of psychology: 'Simple' conditioning?
Commun Integr Biol. Shahan TA. Conditioned reinforcement and response strength.Related to Reinforcement psychology : Reinforcement steel. In the psychological theory of behaviorismpresentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses. This is central in operant conditioning.
Positive reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is added to the environment immediately after the desired response has been exhibited. It serves to strengthen the response, that is, to increase the likelihood of its occurring again.
Examples of such reinforcement are food, money, a special privilege, or some other reward that is satisfying to the subject. Negative reinforcement consists of a stimulus that is withdrawn subtracted from the environment immediately after the response, so that the withdrawal serves to strengthen the response.
An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes a fist tightly or pulls against flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles. See also: Jendrassik maneuver.
See also: reinforcerschedules of reinforcementclassical conditioningoperant conditioning. In dentistry, a structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; for example, bars in plastic denture base.
In conditioning, the totality of the process in which the conditioned stimulus is followed by presentation of the unconditioned stimulus, which itself elicits the response to be conditioned. Psychology a. The occurrence or experimental introduction of an unconditioned stimulus along with a conditioned stimulus. An event, circumstance, or condition that increases the likelihood that a given response will recur in a situation like that in which the reinforcing condition originally occurred.
An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes the fist tightly or pulls against the flexed fingers or contracts some other set of muscles. See also: reinforcer. In dentistry, structural addition or inclusion used to give additional strength in function; e. Mentioned in? Medical browser? Reifenstein Reifenstein syndrome Reifenstein, Edward C.
Full browser?The term reinforce means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens or increases the probability of a specific response. For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you.
The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so. This is a simple description of a reinforcer Skinner,the treat, which increases the response, sitting. We all apply reinforcers everyday, most of the time without even realizing we are doing it. All of these things increase the probability that the same response will be repeated.
There are four types of reinforcement: positive, negative, punishment, and extinction. Positive Reinforcement. The examples above describe what is referred to as positive reinforcement.
Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. For example, adding a treat will increase the response of sitting; adding praise will increase the chances of your child cleaning his or her room.
The most common types of positive reinforcement or praise and rewards, and most of us have experienced this as both the giver and receiver. Negative Reinforcement.
Think of negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response. Imagine a teenager who is nagged by his mother to take out the garbage week after week. After complaining to his friends about the nagging, he finally one day performs the task and to his amazement, the nagging stops.
The elimination of this negative stimulus is reinforcing and will likely increase the chances that he will take out the garbage next week. Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior. The most common example of this is disciplining e. The reason we do this is because the child begins to associate being punished with the negative behavior. The punishment is not liked and therefore to avoid it, he or she will stop behaving in that manner.
When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called extinction. You are taking something away so that a response is decreased.
Research has found positive reinforcement is the most powerful of any of these. Adding a positive to increase a response not only works better, but allows both parties to focus on the positive aspects of the situation. Punishment, when applied immediately following the negative behavior can be effective, but results in extinction when it is not applied consistently.This is an example of which kind of reinforcement schedule?
Because John's parents reward him based on how much work he does, it is a ratio-based schedule of reinforcement. Skinner studied operant conditioning through the use of an operant conditioning box, which is also known as what? When Skinner developed the operant conditioning box, it famously became known as the Skinner box. When a stimulus was presented, the box was designed such that a reward or punishment could be delivered depending on the subject's reaction to the stimulus.
For example, when a light was shown, a mouse could push a lever and receive food. Although placebos are used in a great deal of experiments, the Skinner box was developed to study the impact of reinforcement and punishment on learning and behavior.
Positive reinforcement rewards actions by presenting a positive stimulus, while negative reinforcements rewards actions by removing a negative stimulus. Positive punishment introduces a negative stimulus, while negative punishment removes a positive stimulus. Whenever Kylah's students behave well, she reduces their amount of homework for that night.
This is an example of what aspect of operant conditioning? Negative reinforcement occurs when a negative stimulus in this case, the homework is removed in response to the desired behavior behaving well in class. A rabbit is in a cage with a red button. Jones is in the habit of offering extra-credit points on the next exam to students who contribute to class discussions.
What kind of reinforcement strategy is Mr. Jones using to encourage class participation? Because Mr. Jones is reinforcing class participation by giving his students something they want extra credit on the next examhe is giving them a positive reward. In the case of positive reinforcement, the subject tries to attain a positive stimulus. In the case of negative reinforcement, the subject avoids a negative stimulus. In the case of positive reinforcement, the subjects either seeks to attain a positive stimulus, escape a negative stimulus, or actively avoid the prospect of a negative stimulus.
In negative reinforcement, they may be threatened with a negative stimulus or the removal of a positive stimulus. In the case of neutral reinforcement, the subject is not given any stimulus at all for behaviors, which cannot be definitively said to be good or bad.
In operant conditioning, there are two primary methods of conditioning behavior: positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is aimed at increasing a particular behavior, while negative reinforcement is designed to decrease a behavior. In positive reinforcement, the subject either seeks to attain a positive stimulus, escape a negative stimulus, or actively avoid the prospect of a negative stimulus.
Examples of positive reinforcement include presenting food or removing an uncomfortable environmental factor. Examples of negative reinforcement include electrical shocks or removing a toy. Skinner believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences.
In the correct answer, Mike is reinforced with a candy every 15 minutes that he completes the desired behavior of staying on task in class. Suppose Billy was punished because he had stolen his brother's lunch money. His parents punished Billy harshly as a result, but did not give any general guidelines for how Billy should treat his brother in the future.
Punishment is an attempt to decrease unwanted behavior. It is the opposite of reinforcement, which is used to strengthen or increase behavior. Punishment does not, however, indicate that the subject has forgotten about their bad behavior. Because no positive reinforcement has been added, Billy has simply been told what not to do, there has been no indication of what he should do. It follows that, rather than learning from his mistake, Billy may simply become afraid of further punishment.
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If loading fails, click here to try again. Congratulations - you have completed. Your answers are highlighted below. Question 1. Through direct experience with animals, small children come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates what psychological learning concept? Question 1 Explanation:. The correct answer is A. Associative learning is the process by which an association between two stimuli or a behavior and a stimulus is learned.
In this case, the noise an animal makes is associated with the animal. Question 2. Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a n :. Question 2 Explanation:. The correct answer is C. An unconditioned response is an automatic reaction to something. In this case, blinking would be an automatic reaction to the air puff and would occur without an association. Unconditioned responses are not learned, they occur naturally in response to a stimulus. Question 3. Maddie gets a speeding ticket, and her parents take her car away for 2 weeks.
This is an example of what reinforcement schedule? Question 3 Explanation:. The correct answer is B. In negative punishment, a desirable object is removed in response to undesirable behavior with the goal of reducing or ending the undesirable behavior.
In this case, the desired object is the car, the undesired action is the speeding ticket, and the desired outcome is no future speeding tickets. Question 4. What is an example of a secondary reinforcer? Question 4 Explanation:. Secondary reinforcers are used to support a behavior that has become associated with a primary reinforce.Operant conditioning: Schedules of reinforcement - Behavior - MCAT - Khan Academy
Primary reinforcers consist of biological drives — food and pleasure being the primary examples. Secondary reinforcers are often those that can be used to acquire primary reinforcers. In this case, money can be used to acquire both instant satisfaction and food, so it would be a secondary reinforcer.